Browsing articles tagged with " Yarn"
Mar 16, 2015

Loom FAQS: What is WPI and Yarn Weights?

Loom-FAQs1

 

The one thing all yarn arts have in common is the yarn itself.  And what a variety of yarn there is!  All the different weights or thicknesses of yarn can be overwhelming.  It can be confusing as to what can be made with certain weight yarns if you have never used it before.  Questions always abound when it comes to yarn weights.  What is yarn weight?  Which weight yarn do I use?  How many strands do I use to equal a heavier weight?  Is 4ply and worsted the same?  What in the world is WPI???

Let’s start at the beginning.

What is yarn weight?

Well first of all, yarn weight has nothing to do with the net weight of the hank, skein, or ball of yarn.  It has nothing to do with the yardage either.  When yarn weight is discussed, it is referring to the thickness or diameter of the yarn.

Here in the USA, yarn is labeled by a number system to differentiate between the different thicknesses of yarn although there are other terms or common names associated with those weights as well.  The yarn weight can be found on the label of the yarn.  It is a symbol of a yarn skein or ball with a number on the label like this one.

images

Not all yarns will have this since it depends on where the company is actually located.

Yarn weight is actually determined by the wraps per inch or WPI instead of the actual diameter of the yarn.

What is WPI?

WPI stands for Wraps Per Inch.  You can easily determine the weight of “mystery” yarn you have in your stash that has lost its label, handspun yarn you either spun yourself or bought, or mill ends by counting how many wraps are in an inch.  There are different ways you can do this.  You can buy a WPI tool or just use a pencil and use a ruler to measure.  Or you can just use the ruler to wrap the yarn and measure at the same time.

The WPI tool is a very neat tool that has the inches marked on the round stem with a notch at the end to hold the yarn so you can wrap the stem.  It usually comes with a card that has the instructions on one side and the yarn weights with WPI on the other.  Very handy but not necessary.

You can use a pencil or pen to do the same thing.  Then measure and count the wraps in an inch by using a ruler.  In the picture below, I wrapped more than an inch and started counting from the second wrap until I reached the 1″ mark.  There are 9 wraps in an inch.

11074301_10205632486226555_2094561041_n

You can also just use a ruler to wrap the yarn around.  The problem with this method is the possibility of twisting the yarn while wrapping which will stretch it so care is needed when using just a ruler.  I would recommend starting at the 1″ mark and wrapping to the 2″ mark on the ruler instead of starting at the end of the ruler.  If you start at the end, it is harder to keep the end wraps from falling off the ruler.  As you can see below, it is harder to read the marks on the ruler when the yarn is wrapped on it instead of a pencil.  There are 6 wraps in an inch.

WPI on Ruler

When you wrap the pencil or ruler, you need to make sure the yarn is not pulled tight or pushed together.  It needs to be relaxed.  You just roll the pencil or turn the ruler to wind the yarn on whichever you are using.  Rolling instead of just wrapping will keep the yarn from being twisted which will cause the yarn to pull tighter and be thinner than it actually is.  Do not pull on the yarn at all.  Tension will stretch the yarn and cause it to be thinner than it is.  Let each wrap rest next to the previous wrap without being pushed together.  If the yarn has a halo, like mohair, you will need to give the yarn more room between wraps for the “fuzzy” hairs to expand.  This is why mohair yarn always has a heavier weight than it would appear to be.  It is not measured by just the diameter of the yarn but also how far the halo extends as well.

Count the number of times the yarn is wrapped around for 1 inch.  Some instructions will say to wrap 2 inches, count the wraps, and divide by 2.  This is not necessary unless you are measuring yarn with “character” like a thick and thin yarn.  Then you would need to wrap 3 inches and divide by 3 to get a good count.

The number counted in 1 inch is the WPI.  Then compare that number to the chart below to find your yarn weight.

 

What are the different weights of yarn available?

Since the new weight classification has been added, there are now 8 different categories in the USA yarn weight system.  Some of the common names overlap depending on location and how it was taught.  Please note that some people will include aran as a bulky weight yarn.  While it is thicker than worsted, aran is still included in the medium weight category due to it’s WPI.  Also, Caron Simply Soft and Red Heart Boutique Unforgettable are considered medium weight as well even though both are thinner which can make the entire medium weight category confusing for some people.

Weight #                          Common Name                                       WPI

0 – lace                           Cobweb/Thread/Lace/Sock                  23 and greater

1 – super fine                  Lace/Sock/Fingering                              19 – 22

2 – fine                            Baby/Sport/Lace                                    15 – 18

3 - light                           Sport/DK/Baby                                        12 – 14

4 - medium.                    Worsted/Aran                                           9 – 11

5 – bulky                          Bulky                                                        7 – 8

6 - super bulky.               Super Bulky                                              5 – 6

7 – jumbo                         Jumbo                                                      4 and less

 

Why are the weights different other places?

Not all countries use the same names for yarn weights.  It can sometimes get confusing since the internet makes the world smaller.  There are pattern writers all over the world that use the yarn classifications of their country.  I have bought yarn from the UK on several occasions.  You will need to know what the names of the yarn weights are so you can buy the correct yarn.  For example, 4 ply is NOT 4 weight yarn.  It is a lot thinner.  Yarn weight is not determined by the number of plies.  And that leads us to our next question…

 

What are the yarn weight equivalents between the USA and UK?

USA Weight                  UK Term

0 - lace                            1 – 3 ply

1 - super fine                  4 ply

2 - fine                             5 ply

3 -light                             DK/8 ply

4 - medium                     Aran/10 ply

5 - bulky                          Chunky/12 ply

6 - super bulky              Super Chunky

7 – jumbo                        unknown

 

What weight yarn do I use with certain looms?

A lot of times, the weight of yarn you use with certain looms will depend on the stitch pattern or the way you want the finished project to look.  Each person has their own idea of what is too tight or too loose.  Tension is a factor as well since each person’s tension is different.  It is sometimes hard to say what weight yarn is best for each gauge loom, but it can be helpful to have a starting place until you learn which is best for you.  If you are unsure what gauge loom you have, you can learn more about gauge here.

Extra fine gauge – lace/super fine

Fine gauge – super fine/fine/light

Small gauge – light/medium

Regular gauge – light/medium/bulky

Large gauge – bulky/super bulky/jumbo

Extra large gauge - super bulky/jumbo

 

How many strands will equal a heavier weight?

Needing a heavier weight yarn than you have in your stash?  All you need to do is use more than 1 strand.  But how many strands will equal what you need?

If you use 2 strands of yarn, it will be equivalent to the next heavier weight.  So if you have a 4 weight yarn and need a 5 weight yarn, use 2 strands together as 1.

Here is an easy way to see what you need:

2 strands of 1 weight = 1 strand of 2 weight

2 strands of 2 weight = 1 strand of 3 weight

2 strands of 3 weight = 1 strand of 4 weight

2 strands of 4 weight = 1 strand of 5 weight

2 strands of 5 weight = 1 strand of 6 weight

2 strands of 6 weight = 1 strand of 7 weight

But what if I only have 4 weight and need a 6 weight?  Since 2 strands of 4 weight equals 1 strand of 5 weight and 2 strands of 5 weight equals 1 strand of 6 weight, then 4 strands of 4 weight will equal 1 strand of 6.  3 strands of 4 weight will be a heavier 5 or a lighter 6 weight yarn.

Hopefully this will help in trying to decide which yarn weights are best for which looms and for finding out what weight that mystery yarn is that keeps getting pushed aside.

Keep asking questions!  Questions lead to answers, and answers lead to knowledge.

5 Comments

  • Even after reading this I’m still very confused I use number 4 all the time unless the materials are given to me and for the gauge how to tell I still don’t understand

  • I’m doing the Mystic Shawl out of the Knitting Board Basics book. Its done in open braid stitch. On the back piece the last 8 rows has to be decreased. It says to maintain open braid pattern as you decrease. How do you do that? Thanks in advance!

  • I am not understanding your question, Tracey. Are you needing to find the gauge of your loom? I wrote an article about loom gauge and swatch gauge earlier. I put a link in this article that will take you to that one. You can just use more than 1 strand of 4 weight yarn on the plastic large gauge looms.

  • Two of the headbands call for cdd after you have moved the yarn to different pegs
    What is cdd. If I read it right, you do something on one peg that has 2 loops?
    Thank you for your help

  • It stands for central double decrease. Move loop from peg 1 to 2. Knit peg 2. Move loop from peg 3 to 2, lift bottom loop over.

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Feb 14, 2014

Friday Free Pattern :: Woven Evening Purse

Lindsay-Obermeyer-woven-evening-bag

Weaving on your knitting board is simple and can produce fabulous fabrics like the one featured in this vintage-inspired, glamorous evening purse.  I’ve lined it and added a button closure and beaded handle for added practicality.

Pattern Information:
Knitting Loom:
28″ Knitting Board with Peg Extenders

Yarn: Lion Brand Vanna’s Glamour in Lapis
Ribbon: Offray 1/8″ Gold Metallic Ribbon, 15ft each spool (6 spools) and Simplicty 5/16″ Gold Metallic Trim, 6ft each spool (3 spools)
Beads: 7 round “Wedding Cake” lampwork beads in transparent teal (Indian, not the original Venetian), 80 size 8/0 gold silver-lined beads, 10 gold hexagon beads (NOTE: I’ve been collecting beads for 30 years, these were from my private stash. They are still available, but you may need to shop for them on eBay, Etsy, or at an online bead company if you want the same exact colors.)
Other Supplies:
2 pieces of lightweight Phoomph from Coats and Clark, 2 pieces of Forest Green Craft Felt (9″ x 12″), Fabric Glue, 1″ diameter gold metallic button with a shank, crimping tubes (2), bead stringing wire.

Tools:
size N crochet hook, size F crochet hook, tapestry needle, scissors, ruler / tape measure, crimping pliers, flat knitting bobbin or weaving stick shuttle, awl / crewel needle, cutting pliers.

Finished Size:
19″ x 8″ (flat),   6.5″ x 8″ (finished size without handle)

Weaving Technique:  Tabby / Plain Weave – equal amounts of weft and warp are visible
Row 1: Weave under the first warp thread and over the next.  Repeat across the loom.
Row 2: Weave over the first warp thread and under the next. Repeat across the loom.
Repeat Row 1 and 2, ending with Row 2.

Terminology
Warp – the vertical lines of yarn you weave in an out of on the loom.
Weft  – the horizontal line of yarn that you weave in and out of the warp.

1.     Add Loom Extenders
Add one extender to the bottom of the loom and the other one hole in from the other side.

Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Detaile2.     Warp Up the Loom
Tie the end of the yarn to the first peg on the peg extender leaving a 5 inch tail.  Run the yarn to the peg opposite it on the other peg extender.  Repeat this process until you have warped the entire loom.  Tie the warp to the last peg and leave a 5″ tail.

3.     Begin Weaving
Wind your ribbon around the shuttle (knitting or weaving).  Weave under the first warp thread and over the next one.  Be sure to leave a tail at the beginning. Repeat the under / over pattern across the loom.  When you are finished, proceed in the other direct. Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-DetaildWrap the ribbon around the first peg on the vertical edge. Weave over the first warp thread and under the next one.  When you have returned to your starting point, weave in the tail, tucking it to the back.  Keep going in this manner for the next 13″.  As you run out of ribbon, be sure to end at one side or the other, not in the middle.  Wind more ribbon around the shuttle and continue.

HINT:  If you find that your fabric is bowing in the center, weave the next row as normal, but wrap it around the nearest beg with ribbon already wound around it.  Repeat as go back.  This will straighten your line.  You may need to proceed with this trick every few inches throughout your weaving.

4.  Alternate Gold Ribbon with Gold Trim
For the final 6″ you will alternate weaving a gold metallic ribbon with a gold trim. Keep both tidy and tangle free by winding them on separate shuttles.

Lindsay-Obemeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Wrapping-Around-Pegs     Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Detail-Finished-Weaving

5.     Remove Fabric from the Loom and Bind Off the Edges

 

6.     Add Lining
Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Bag-DetailbTrim tails on the back of fabric, leaving only a 1/4″. Measure your fabric. Cut the Phoomph to size.  I used one piece of Phoomph for the base of the purse and another for the flap. Trim the Phoomph to have rounded corners at the flap and base.  Cut felt to width, but allow it to remain 12″ long.  Cut the 2nd piece of felt to cover the remainder.  Peel away one side of the Phoomph and press firmly to the back side of your fabric. Peel away the other side, position the felt and press firmly.

7.     Crochet Together the Edges of the Purse
Fold the ribbon section in half, leaving the flap free.  With the yarn and F crochet hook, slip stitch the edges closed.  To do so, you will insert the hook at the base, running the hook below the bound edges.  When you have completed one side.  Proceed to the other.  Weave in all tails.

Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Detaila  Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Finishing-the-Base

8.     Add a Beaded Handle
Cut a 20″ piece of beading wire.  Poke a hole with the awl a 1/4″ in from both sides at the base of the flap.

Thread the wire through the hole, leaving a 4″ tail.   Thread five 8/0 gold beads and a lampwork bead, another 8/0 bead and a crimp bead onto the long end of the wire.  With the tail, thread thirteen 8/0 gold beads onto the tail and then run it through the lampwork bead, gold bead and crimp.  Use the crimping pliers to crimp the bead.  Trim away the excess tail with the cutting pliers.  Add two 8/0 gold beads.  *Add a lampwork bead, two 8/0 beads, a hexagon bead, two 8/0 beads.* Repeat pattern from * to * and ending with a lampwork bead.  Thread two 8/0 gold beads, a hexagon bead, two 8/0 beads, a crimp bead, an 8/0 bead, a lampwork bead and thirteen 8/0 beads.  Poke the wire through the hole in the fabric on the other side of the flap and thread a final five 8/0 gold beads.  Run the wire through the lampwork bead and up to the crimp bead.  Pull until the beads are tightened up.  Crimp the bead with the crimping pliers. Trim away excess wire.

Lindsay-Obermeyer-Woven-Evening-Purse-Detailg    Lindsay-Obermeyer-woven-evening-purse-detailf

9.     Finishing Touches
Fold over the edge at the top of the flap and glue down with fabric glue.  Allow to dry.

Add a crocheted loop.  Measure to find the center of the flap edge.  With the F crochet hook, fasten on the yarn with a slip stitch a 1/2″  from the left of center point.  Leave a 4″ tail.  Chain 8.  Slip stitch to the fabric a 1/2″ to the right of the center point.  Knot and weave in tails.  Fold flap in place.  Place button at center point where flap meets base of purse.  Sew on button.

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6 Comments

  • That looks amazing.

  • Thank you, Karen! – Lindsay

  • Do you remember how many yards per spool for these ribbons? That way, if I can’t find the exact ones, I may be able to substitute.

  • Thank you for catching that omission! I’ve added the yardage to the pattern.

  • I quite enjoyed browsing through this. I reckon it’s going to go really good with the handmade stuff I found at etsy.com/shop/FlosCaeli I purchase all of my headbands, necklaces, etc there.

  • Hi Clarinda,

    What are you intending to make a woven headband or ear warmer would be great! You’ve given me an idea!

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